CPU Museum

Hardware

Getting To Know The Central Processing Unit

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a computer hardware that provides an important function to the whole computer system. The CPU is primarily responsible for a computer’s speed, cache, and data processing which is dependent on core of the system. Let’s take a look further.   

The CPU also known as processor stands for Central Processing Unit. Like the best handheld gps devices that rely on ARM applications processor for many tasks, computers in the same manner, rely on Central Processing unit to the unit’s responsiveness.

Computer Speed

The speed or clock frequency refers to how many cycles the processor goes through in a second. A 3.0 ghz processor does 3 million(billion!) cycles per second. Obviously the more cycles the faster the unit, however the efficiency of each cycle is also important.

The efficiency of each cycle is known as IPC, instruction per cycle. Just to visualize this mini bit, imagine a man running. You’re trying to get from point A to point B. The faster you run the faster you get there.

However, if you have a small stride then for every leg movement, you don’t cover much land. In the same way, a CPU, despite having a fast clock frequency, must also have a large IPC to be effective.

Cache

Another concept of the processor is the cache. The cache is simply ultra-fast accessible memory in the processor. The cache stores data temporarily which may be required from the CPU.

If the CPU had to get data from the RAM modules, it would take time so most CPU’s have the cache which will store data which can be sent fast to the CPU when it needs it. The bigger the cache the faster the CPU will be at performing tasks.

Core

There’s also cores, you may have heard dual core, quad core and even hex core. Basically the more cores, the easier the CPU can deal with the data it is fed.

Simple Comparison of CPU to a River for Better Understanding

If you don’t understand this, then imagine a river is your processor as a whole. Garbage is chucked at one end of your river. The cache ensures that garbage is chucked in quickly. The garbage is data which need to be processed. The rivers primary objective is to get rid of the garbage or process the information.

The speed the river flows is the clock speed, the faster the river flows the faster the garbage will pass. The instruction per cycle is the effectiveness of each ripple. Cores are when the river splits into channels. It makes the river be able to easily distribute the garbage.

So the information passed through the fast speed of the river meant that the data was processed fast and the multiple cores meant that the processor could do its tasks much more efficiently. The cache meant that the garbage could quickly be put in one end of the river.

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Categories: Hardware

Computer Architecture: Hardware & Software

The most basic division of a computer system is between the hardware and the software.  All computer programmers, IT, and even web designers should know this.

Introduction to Computer Architecture.

Software

Software includes all the programmed instructions in a computer. There is a main program called the system software also known as the operating system, which controls the interactions within the hardware and software components. Application software are programs like Photoshop, Browsers like Google Chrome, and game application like League of Legends. Application software is also being used in web design Dunstable.

Hardware

  • Hardware is often described as the physical part of a computer where you can see and touch. The main hardware components include the CPU or Central Processing Unit, main memory, secondary storage devices and the I/O (input and output) devices.
  • The CPU is a microchip that receives and decodes instructions for memory. Within a CPU are specialized units, one is the ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) this part performs operations with numbers. While the CU (Control Unit), manages the flow of instructions in time of the CPU clock. The faster the CPU clock, the more instructions that can be processed at a time.
  • If your processor is a Quad-core (four transistor circuits in one chip), these four cores, allows your processor to execute four times as many instructions at a time than if it only had one core.
  • The main memory is volatile, that means whatever data is held here would be lost if the power went off. Volatile memory needs a constant flow of electricity to work, so, it’s only used for instructions in active use. Otherwise data is stored in a permanent storage device like the hard drive.

From Signals to Information

The main memory can be imagined as a sequence of cells that are either empty or contain instructions or data. Each cell has its own unique address, in the actual hardware electrical signals on and off represents all computer information. These on and off signals are called bits.

Hardware, Software, and Data

The hardware of a computer is like a kitchen, it includes all the equipment necessary for cooking food as well as an energy source and location for performing the process of cooking. The kitchen is where the ideas of a recipe are translated into edible meals. A recipe is like software, a recipe is just a series of written instructions that tells you how to turn raw ingredients into a culinary masterpiece by itself a recipe is a useless piece of writing but as soon as the recipes interpreted and executed the recipe has a value as a functional tool that can be used again and again to produce the same result. Software is reusable, the instructions of software control the flow of data.

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Categories: Computer, Hardware

The Evolution of the Computer

Individuals have been manipulating data and running information since ancient times in certain type. It had been the improvement towards the computer that changed data processing.

Binary signals in finance differ from binary signals in computers. Binary signals in computers have been important ever since. It allowed various circuits to communicate with each other in order to complete processes.

Because the first-generation of computers were constructed, the following three computer years have created smaller, more affordable, and stronger devices – mainly whilst the consequence of the growth of the integrated circuit.

During this period, computers main storage capacity improved, which influenced effectiveness and the types of application that would be used.

It included about 18,000 digital vacuum tubes – how big bulbs – the controlled the circulation of electric energy.

We have passed through four decades engineering of computer. First, magnetic recording and the punched cards were use for output and feedback media. Next, transistors plus some other solid state products arrived which were significantly smaller were utilized in the computer circuitry.

Next, using integrated chips– an entire digital signal that deals other electronic parts on the little plastic chip along with transistors – changed traditional transistorized circuitry. Finally, tracks were created that included thousands on the small chip to countless transistors.

The ability of the computer has grown much that it may usually produce extra information than people could successfully cope with previously. Indeed, within this culture, understanding may be the main source for your economy overall and for people. Consequently, we ought to be selective concerning the kind of information and day we approach.

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Categories: Hardware

Why is a Video Card Important?

A pc video card can be an extension card that allows a PC monitor to show photos pictures and other design. It’s one the numerous computing devices essential for a PC to work properly.

The computer video card can also be called display adapter, a graphics accelerator card or graphics card.

A lot more than only a computer part for displaying artwork, the video card plays a role in the pace where pictures are made onscreen — the amount of frames per minute (fps). It has a graphics processing system (GPU) that sends signals towards the computer monitor. A pc video card’s speed is dependent upon numerous elements including memory clock speed primary clock rate and quantity of pixel pipelines.

Memory bandwidth plays a job within effectiveness and the general pace of the computer video card. Memory bandwidth will be the pace through which the GPU exchanges information to graphics memory.

Like certain other computer parts, network interface cards and sound cards, video cards sold or could be incorporated into a motherboard. More often than not, integrated video cards are effective than individual, dedicated video cards. Integrated video cards don’t have their particular memory cache hence they’ve to use from system memory. This could cause lags in efficiency particularly if the computer person is working artwork- multiple programs or intensive application in the same time.

High end dedicated video cards provide additional features for example FireWire support and video capture. They might also sport outside locations that enable the inclusion of an S-Video and an additional computer monitor out-port that allows the computer to speak using a television. These powerful video cards may market for around several thousand pounds which will make them very costly computer parts.

For that normal computer person who just uses his Computer work office programs or to search the Net, a video card could match all processing tasks. For graphics designers, PC gamers and other large media application customers, a strong graphics card along with other high end computing devices are crucial for better and softer graphics animations. It may improve lighting and designs of 3D Computer games to provide realistic and more descriptive sceneries.

Motherboards could only support one of these kinds of video cards.

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Categories: Hardware